Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Video Games in USA - 1650 Words

Video Games in USA (Essay Sample) Content: Video Games in USAName:Institutional Affiliation:The problem that I would like to address is the impact of video games on children in the United States of America. Video games play a role in influencing the general social behavior of young children or players. For instance, some video games have an influence in sparking bad behavior (criminal behavior) among the children. Hostile aspects in a game contribute to most of the unpleasant acts that are always visible in children. This disrupts the relationships among the family members leading to irresponsible individuals in the society.Moreover, spending lots of time in front of a computer is associated with a number of medical effects which are harmful to the health of children due to addiction. Addiction can lead to obesity among children who always spend most of their time indoors and spare no time for outdoor games. Outdoor games are healthy for children because they tend to provide sufficient relaxation and full exer cise of the brain, body and mind for those children who are still undergoing bodily development.The strain that result from prolonged exposure to televisions or rather computer screens radiations have a significant number of effects on children. The most common problems that arise here are change in lifestyle and eye complications among other problems (Katie Zimmerman, 2005). Older children transform their lifestyles in cases of addiction to such games whereas eye complications apply to both young and old children.To solve this problem of addiction, parents should increase supervision in a way that when the children want to acquire a new game, they should filter the type of content or rather the rating of games. In addition, parents should use parental control to regulate childrens access to games that are addictive and might enhance development of poor behaviors among children.PROBLEM ANALYSIS REPORTThe Impact of Video Games on Children in United States of AmericaProblem definitio nThe virtual environment that is created by video games is crucial in establishment of a spatial presence. However, the impression of the entire earth as created by games has no direct relationship with real circumstances and actions that take place on the earth. The violent plans of actions that are shown in various game scenarios are not real thus, when practiced in the real life situations, there might be horrendous consequences to the individual involved in the action and generally the society. Therefore, video games involve retention of memory as it is done in classrooms but it does not substitute the ideas and knowledge that is obtained from class books and other learning processes at schools (Gee, 2003. p.104).The success of video games is associated with the level of active control in players. This enables the player to make decision on the type of action that can be taken in order to fight the situations which offer uneven control and confidence that might urge the children to enact the same way in the real life situations. In addition, the points that are gained in violent games that involve killing of people through shooting tend to glorify the kind of violence shown in games. Thus, addiction to computer or video games most of the time leads to arising of anger between parents and their children in a case where parents are extremely strict and hard on their kids.Parents have expressed their concerns on the general impact of video games on the social and psychological behavior of children. A number of these games have parental control hence parents can easily control every step of play. However, recent researches have proved that only twenty percent of parents try to exercise their parental control over the purchase and playing of video games (Wills, 2002. p.15). Problem EvidenceThe correlation between the violent incidences such as violent attacks from teenagers and interaction with violent games has not been established. However, there is a signifi cant increase in insensitiveness and vocal abuse towards crime in a number of cases. Thus, from the American health association, various researches have proven that the total time spend by children who belong to a quite low social and economic class play games five times more than those kids from the richer and educated families or societies. Here, education is the judging factor, but not money.Causes of the problemLike any other forms of media, video games are a major topic that is frequently under controversial discussions and censorship. This is as a result of graphic violence, use of illegal drugs, spread of sexual themes, propaganda, consumption of tobacco and alcohol and profanity in various games (Wills, 2002. p.15).There are various parties that seriously criticize video games in the society (among children). They include parents, organized religious groups, politicians and other organized religious groups. These parties have accused several games of causing an irreversible addiction alongside extremely violent behavior amongst children in the society. In addition, a question of age has been arising whenever this issue of games is being discussed. Video games addiction has been in existence for so many years now, beyond the remembrance of current young children. There is lots of violence in media systems such as televisions, movies, music and video games. This violence greatly affects children. It is extremely pronounced and open that the video games tend to teach many young people the weapon-related skills and influence the way they react to their colleagues.Consequences Playing many video games that are violent is associated with the general aggressive feelings, behavior and thoughts in children. Furthermore, these violent games are related to the act of young children being unwilling to help and show some caring attitude towards their colleagues or rather their peers. Most importantly, researches have shown substantial evidence on this not happenin g to non-aggressive children alone.In addition, children who are fond of playing violent video games are hostile and in many cases, they enjoy arguing with other kids. However, those children who spend less than ten minutes to play a computer game tend to be more aggressive in a short while immediately after playing as compared to those who play for a couple of hours (Witheford Peuter, 2009. p.30).Video games involve parts or rather sections whereby children repeatedly enjoy the recurring incidents of violence within the games. The violence in the games might be harmful as compared to the type of violence watched from televisions and movies. In video games, violence is made more realistic since there are rewards for every violent act.Video games have various ratings that indicate when and where mature sex themes are used, presence of violence, strong language and other irrelevant content for children. These ratings indicate suitable games for children in various age groups. For ins tance, when selecting appropriate games for children and adults, ratings are extremely crucial when taken seriously.Table on game popularity and content descriptionGame rankGame Number of children Game content descriptionGrand Theft 242Intense violence, strong sexual content, drug abuseMadden 189No descriptionHalo 154Violence and shade of bloodTony hawk90Use of alcohol, blo...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

evolution of cell phones Essay examples - 601 Words

1 The improvement in technology has come such a long way in the last forty years. Comparing improvements in cars, televisions, computers, and cell phones is quite an easy task to do. The biggest technological improvement would have to be the cell phone with its major differences in appearance, and its usefulness/capability. Even in just the last few years there have been major changes to the cell phone, but comparing the first cell phone to todays is like comparing a caveman to a rocket scientist. On April 3rd, 1973, the very first cell phone call was made by a man named Martin Cooper. Martin was using a Motorola DynaTAC 8000x, or as most people know as the very first cell phone. At first glance the 8000x basically looked like some†¦show more content†¦Along with that, is the 8000x couldn’t do anything else, it was strictly made for phone calls. When compared to the cell phones today, the 8000x is way beyond outdated. In modern day there has been many improvements such as unlimited minutes, texting, and also the availability to search the web right from your phone. The technology is just way beyond that of which most people thought it would ever go. Most people would agree that the cell phone is now a necessity. It provides numerous ways for each other to contact each other through, calling, texting, picture messages, and even live face to face video chat. The cell phone today can do just about anything needed, and is an outstanding improvement from when the first cell phone was invented. Major improvements such as its appearance, and its overall usefulness and capability. Though the first cell phone was an extreme breakthrough for modern technology at the time, the technological advancement today has made the cell phone not only extremely handy, but considered by most as a necessity. Only time can tell what future cell phones will be like and how we can compare them to the way we use themShow MoreRelatedThe Evolution Of Cell Phones1331 Words   |  6 PagesThe Evolution of Cell Phones: 1995-Present Throughout the twentieth-century, different inventions and predictions were made to determine what the future would be like. For example, hover cars and advanced spacecraft were some of the most iconic pieces of predicted technology. Although hover cars still have yet to be refined some predictions of the twentieth-century are seen being used today, such as small portable communicators. Small portable communicators have enhanced the way people communicateRead MoreEvolution of Cell Phones1324 Words   |  6 Pages Today we refer to our phones as cellphones or mobile phones. However, that was not the case when they first came about. The term â€Å"radiotelephony† was used to describe what we now call our cell phones. Early radiotelephony, â€Å"early† dating back to the 1940’s, services was available for a very small amount of people. The very first mobile phones were better known as radiotelephones and were first used in the early part of the last century. Radiotelephones were originally used for ship-to-shore orRead MoreCell Phone Evolution948 Words   |  4 Pagesahold† or communicate with someone that was not within walking distance you would follow these three simple steps: First you would walk over to the nearest landline phone. Depending on if no one else in the household was currently using it, would determine if you would be able to talk to who you wanted. Next you would pick up the phone and begin dialing. This could be as easy as pushing the numbers or as difficult as putting your finger in a hold on a rotating piece of plastic, spinning it all theRead MoreThe Cell Phone Evolution Essay1667 Words   |  7 PagesThe Cell Phone Evolution Table of Contents THE BEGINNING 3 A NEW WAY TO COMMUNICATE 4 PRESENT CELL PHONES 6 FUTURE CELL PHONES†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦7 REFERENCES†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦8 The Cell Phone Evolution THE BEGINNING Over a century ago, Alexander Graham Bell changed the way people communicated with each other. Back when he invented the phone in 1876, no one could imagine that over the next century, his invention would change the way societies interactRead MoreTechnology And Evolution Of Cell Phones2038 Words   |  9 Pages When cell phones were first introduced, they were large and expensive. In 1983 the first truly mobile phone was released by Motorola. It was the Motorola DynaTAC 8000x. To some people it is known as the â€Å"Zack Morris phone.† He used this phone on a regular basis in a popular television show called â€Å"Saved by the bell† which took place in the late 80’s to early 90’s. It was an extremely large device compared to the ones we are used to now and it was only designed to make phone calls. It was not oftenRead MoreCell Phone Evolution: Good and Bad1252 Words   |  6 PagesCell Phone Evolution: Good and Bad Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the world has become a smaller and faster place. The time used to travel to far distances has decreased. The growth of new technologies, traveling and communicating has become simple daily tasks for many people. Through the growth of global communication, people have become closer to others across the globe, and business has gone world wide. One invention that came along with the technological revolution is theRead MoreFor The Last Couple Of Decades, The Evolution Of Cell Phones1389 Words   |  6 Pagesthe evolution of cell phones has happened fast, and it has happened right before our eyes. The memories about having a house phone with a cord on a table or attached to the wall are still on my mind. Nowadays, however, a person needs only one device to do different things at the same time, when in the past one needed three different devices to be able to do their things, and it was time-consuming. Not everybody has adapted to the new era of cell phones. There are still people who think cell phonesRead MoreCommunication And Cell Phones : The Evolution Of Electronic Communication1339 Words   |  6 PagesThe evolution of social interaction, like so much of human existence, usually takes place over multiple generations. However, the advent of mobile cellular devices and their proliferating ownership and use has altered social interaction dramatically in the last decade; communication never stops. Instead of looking ahead while walking and engaging with other pedestrians, many people are looking down and interacting with their mobile device. Texting while driving is such a significant problem thatRead MoreEvolution of the Mobile Phone718 Words   |  3 Pagesfrom a cell phone. Martin Cooper, vice president of Motorola, walked out of a Manhattan building and made the first cellular network call from a DynaTAC phone. The first call was made to Bell Labs, Motorola’s largest competitor in the mobile marketing business. (Cheng, 2013) Cooper’s phone call started a trend in which technology constantly evolves. From the Motorola DynaTAC to the iPhone 5S, the mobile phone has evolved since the large, bulky device made in 1973. The very first cell phone was releasedRead MoreImpact of the Technology on Each Individual’s Behavior1129 Words   |  5 Pagesrecognize that it is a language evolution. And when it comes to cultures and lack of technology in the early days, Charles McGrath’s â€Å"The Pleasures of the Text† talk about the limitation of texts and the cultural reasons, so the abbreviations have start been using. The Campus Times keep talking about the abbreviations and the influences on today’s language. By CQ Researcher, it says people today are more connected than ever, and each individual relies on the cell phones to work, entertain, and even

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of The Article Heart Of Darkness Essay

determiner: Words such as â€Å"a/an,† â€Å"the,† â€Å"some,† and â€Å"my† are determiners, which are utilized to â€Å"determine† what nouns mean. â€Å"A/an† and â€Å"the† can be considered to be the most significant determiners. â€Å"A/an† and â€Å"the† also are known as articles. A more comprehensive list of determiners would include â€Å"any,† â€Å"each,† â€Å"every,† â€Å"no,† â€Å"his,† â€Å"this/that,† â€Å"these/those,† â€Å"his,† â€Å"her,† â€Å"its,† â€Å"your,† â€Å"our,† and â€Å"their.† A concept basic to articles is countability, and they pose difficult challenges for L2 learners regarding, for example, which nouns are countable or uncountable in English since countability, while very important, can be difficult to quantify. An example regarding the use of the article would be the novel Heart of Da rkness. Not having an article at the beginning of this title appears to be more a matter of style than grammar, and also is a characteristic of headlines, titles, and names. So while conventionally a countable noun (such as heart) needs a determiner (the, a, this, or my), not applying this rule could be confusing to an L2 learner expecting an article. 2. perfective: In English, there are two aspects (see next entry for a definition of â€Å"aspect†)—perfect (also called perfective) and continuous (also termed progressive). The perfect aspect establishes a connection between two periods of time while the continuous aspect typically connotes that an activity still is occurring, is seen from a specific juncture in time, and the verbs employed are those typicallyShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Article Heart Of Darkness Essay1918 Words   |  8 Pagesknown as articles. A more comprehensive list of determiners would include â€Å"any,† â€Å"each,† â€Å"every,† â€Å"no,† â€Å"his,† â€Å"this/that,† â€Å"these/those,† â€Å"his,† â€Å"her,† â€Å"its,† â€Å"your,† â€Å"our,† and â€Å"their.† A concept basic to articles is countability, and they pose difficult challenges for L2 learners regarding, for example, which nouns are countable or uncountable in English since countability, while very important, can be difficult to quantify. An example regarding the use of the article would be the novel Heart of DarknessRead MoreGender Role In Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness Essay1430 Words   |  6 PagesGender Role In Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness For the most part people who read Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad may feel that the novella is strictly a story of exploration and racial discrimination. But to Johanna Smith who wrote â€Å"’Too Beautiful Altogether’: Ideologies of Gender and Empire in Heart of Darkness† it is much more than that. Johanna Smith along with Wallace Watson and Rita A. Bergenholtz agree that throughout Heart of Darkness there are tones of gender prejudice, but the wayRead MoreThe Journey In â€Å"Heart Of Darkness† Spans Not Only The Capricious1222 Words   |  5 PagesThe journey in â€Å"Heart of Darkness† spans not only the capricious waters extending our physical world, but also the perplexing ocean which exists in the heart of man. Through Marlow s somewhat overenthusiastic eyes, we perceive the mystery that is humanity, and the blurred line between darkness and light. It is an expedition into the deepest crevices of the human heart and mind bringing on an awa reness, and finally descending into the abyss of hell abiding in each of us. Conrad’s use of wordplayRead MoreEthnocentrism: with Whom Resides the Heart of Darkness?790 Words   |  4 PagesEthnocentrism 1 Ethnocentrism With Whom Resides the Heart of Darkness? Antonio Arevalo James Campbell High School Ethnocentrism 2 Abstract This paper discusses Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrads most acclaimed novel, and attempts to determine what the heart of darkness that Conrad speaks of is. I found, through my interpretations, that the heart of darkness is the ethnocentrism that Europeans maintained in the age of colonialism. More specifically, this ethnocentrism broughtRead More Misleading Interpretations of Conrads Heart of Darkness Essays1186 Words   |  5 PagesMisleading Interpretations of Conrads Heart of Darkness Chinua Achebe, a well-known writer, once gave a lecture at the University of Massachusetts about Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness, entitled An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrads Heart of Darkness. Throughout his essay, Achebe notes how Conrad used Africa as a background only, and how he set Africa up as a foil to Europe,(Achebe, p.251) while he also projects the image of Africa as the other world, the antithesis of Europe andRead MoreEssay on Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness1414 Words   |  6 Pageswith a leader of a community who has this type of unchecked power and influence with a happy ending. Perhaps the greatest story ever written about good vs. evil, madness, abuse of power along with influence, and nature just might be Heart of Darkness. Heart of Darkness, written by Joseph Conrad tells the story of an agent named Marlow, who experiences hellish conditions and behaviors whilst trying to rescue a man named Kurtz, who turns out to be quite a handful. Throughout this journey the moral ramificationsRead MoreHeart Of Darkness Essay1426 Words   |  6 PagesJoseph Conrads novel Heart of Darkness uses character development and character analysis to really tell the story of European colonization. Within Conrads characters one can find both racist and colonialist views, and it is the opinion, and the interpretation of the reader which decides what Conrad is really trying to say in his work. Chinua Achebe, a well known writer, once gave a lecture at the University of Massachusetts about Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness, entitled An image of Africa:Read More Colonialism and Imperialism in Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India1683 Words   |  7 Pagesis best to analyze the works, Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India, applying the historical and cultural conditions of the society in which they were produced. The relations between groups and classes of people that imperialism sets up, and that these two works explore, starkly reveals the contradictions within capitalism in a way that a similar piece of fiction set within one culture and dealing with characters from that culture alone cannot. Prior to the analysis however, I would like to giveRead MoreNathaniel Hawthorne And Edgar Allen Poe1318 Words   |  6 Pagescharacteristics of America’s Puritan thought. Both Hawthorne and Poe apprehend the impact of transgression and evil on humanity. â€Å"The Birthm ark† and †Ligeia† both recognize that a yearning for perfection can generate a dark obsession that directs the heart and will of man. â€Å"The Birthmark† is a tale of a youthful woman, Georgina, who has a hand-shaped mark upon her cheek and has been convinced by her husband to get the birthmark removed because in his eyes it limits her perfection. She feels the pressureRead MoreThe Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad968 Words   |  4 PagesJoseph Conrad’s novella The Heart of Darkness has been under controversy because of racial interpretations. The race factor in this novel has made some scholars and professors question the function the novella has in the classroom. However, Joseph Conrad had another view when writing the novel; to demonstrate how prejudice and dehumanizing the European culture is towards African Americans and their culture during this time period. European’s superior authority over African Americans is portrayed

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Modernism vs Postmodernism Essay example Example For Students

Modernism vs Postmodernism Essay example It quickly emerged that the proper and unique area of competence of each art coincided with all that was unique to the nature of its medium. The task of self-criticism became to eliminate from the effects of each art any and every effect that might conceivably be borrowed from or by the medium of any other art. Thereby each art would be rendered pure, and in its purify find the guarantee of its standards of quality as well as of its independence. Purity meant self-definition, and the enterprise of self-criticism in the arts became one of self-definition, with a vengeance. (Greenberg, Modernist Painting, Art in Theory, p.755) Greenbergs aesthetics are the terminal point of historical trajectory. There is another history of art, however, a history of representations for me, and some other erstwhile conceptualists, conceptual art opened onto that other history, a history which opens onto history. Art practice was no longer to be defined as an artisanal activity, a process of crafting fine objects in a given medium, it was rather to be seen as a set of operations performed in a field of signifying practices, perhaps centred on a medium but certainly not bounded by it. (Victor Burgin, The absence of presence, Art in Theory, pp. 1098-9) Discuss the merits of Burgins statement as a basis on which to distinguish postmodernism from Modernism in the practice of art. In your answer you should make reference to at least four works which you consider to be of particular relevance to an argument between these two positions. This question highlights one of the themes central to the account of modem art offered in this course: the tension between the theoretical perspectives of, on the one hand, Modernist criticism and, on the other, an approach focused on the relationship of the art of any given period to its social, political and historical context. The two quotations given above may be interpreted as representing these polarities. It would be an oversimplification to suggest that to accept a Modernist account of modem art must imply rejection of a socio-historical view, or vice-versa (the discussion between TJ Clark and Michael Fried about Pollock (TV21) suggests that there is room for negotiation, if not for compromise). It is, however, arguable that a definition of postmodernism should take into consideration both the close interrelationship between Modernist criticism and mid-twentieth century abstract art, which together constituted the dominant hegemony in art from the late 1940s to the early 1960 s (and hence the artistic context against which postmodernism in the visual arts evolved), and the social, historical and political context within which art characterised as postmodern has developed. It seems reasonable, therefore, to start by attempting to clarify the critical positions represented by Greenberg and Burgin. Greenberg, in Modernist Painting (1961) and other writings, sets the development of modem art, specifically painting, in the context of the ideas of the Enlightenment philosopher Kant, who used logic to establish the limits of logic (Art in Theory p.755.) Kant thereby established a precedent for using the techniques of a particular medium to define and refine that medium, a process referred to by Greenberg as self-criticism. This implies that painting, rather than using art to conceal art (ibid) by creating illusionistic space and depth, should rather use art to call attention to art (ibid), that is, to emphasise the unique characteristics of the medium; the flat surface, the shape of the support, the properties of pigment (ibid). Greenberg states that such a process would render art pure, that is, autonomous, free of any extraneous elements deriving from othe r arts, such as theatricality or narrative. The impact of a painting should thus derive from those technical aspects characteristic of painting, such as colour, form and composition. An example of the sort of painting Greenberg was advocating at the time may clarify this. Morris Louiss painting Alpha-Phi (pl.D10) is exactly contemporary with the publication of Modernist Painting. It consists of bold, ragged, diagonal streaks of pure colour against an off-white ground; Louiss use of acrylic paints, which soak into the canvas, means that the colours appear integrated with the ground and hence do not disrupt the flatness of the picture plane. Its effect depends upon the arrangement of colours and the large scale of the painting which makes it occupy so much of ones visual field that it loses its character as a discrete tactile object and thereby become that much more purely a picture, a strictly visual entity (Greenberg, Louis and Noland, p.28). It is apparently devoid of references to anything other than the intrinsic qualities of forms and colours. Louiss painting, and the contemporary work of Kenneth Noland (e.g. Bloom, pl 141) and Jules Olitski (e.g. (Twice) Disarmed pl.D11) were seen by Greenberg as being how paintings should look if they are to continue the intelligible continuity of taste and tradition (Art in Theory p.760) and offer the viewer a sufficient degree of aesthetic power (Modernism in Dispute p. 173) in the 1960s. Fredric Jameson - Postmodernism EssayWhile Burgins statement does not emphasise these points, they are illustrated by his own work. What does Possession mean to you (pl. 189) uses a glossy advertising-style photograph which is placed in the context of a caption about the ownership of wealth to put a different, socio-political perspective on the image, calling into question issues of gender dominance and property ownership and thus critiquing social norms. It was exhibited not as a single artwork in a gallery, but in a set of 500 copies posted in the streets of the centre of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The replication of the image and its display on the streets can be seen as critical both of the idea of the importance of orginality and of the exhibitions and museums system. A decoupling of art from the established methods of presenting it to the public seems to be characteristic of postmodernism, and is also exemplified by developments such as the Land Art of Richard Long and Robert Smith son, and the public projections of Krystof Wodiczko. These images, for instance his projection of hands holding prison bars onto a courthouse (pl.D71), function, like Burgins poster, as socio-political commentary and also share with it the ephemeral quality mentioned in relation to Koons. Work by Burgin such as Any moment previous to the present moment (pl.169), which consists of text from which the viewer/reader has to construct his/her own image, highlights both Burgins view of the importance of concepts in postmodernist art, and the tendency within postmodernist art to invite the viewer to sustained active participation in the work of art. This is in direct opposition to the passive contemplation advocated by Modernist critics such as Fried who, in Art and Objecthood, claims that good art should be instantaneously present. This idea of the importance of presentness is contradicted by the title of Burgins article, The absence of presence. Taking Burgins statement as a point of departure, it is possible to connect postmodern ideas to a diverse range of works of art, which are in turn associated with a series of contemporary concepts and concerns. While Burgin provides a means of distinguishing postmodernism from Modernism in art, there remains the problem of how to, or indeed whether, one ought to distinguish qualitatively between different postmodernist works. If social relevance is a characteristic of postmodernism, then degree or accuracy of social relevance may be used as an evaluative tool; however, as Harrison and Wood have pointed out (see Modernism in Dispute, p.240) radically critical work may become marginalised and lose its ability to challenge. Furthermore, if the main impact of a work depends on its contemporary relevance, it is likely to lose conceptual value with the passage of time; Haackes The Safety Net (pl.D24) borrows its meaning from contemporary politics rather than conforming with Greenbergs idea of art as self-defining, and is hence now arguably of historic rather than artistic interest. The aesthetic of Greenbergian Modernism may never recover a dominant position within art history but, as Harrison and Wood have suggested, the contingency of the historical is only half the point of art. Bibliography Wood, Frascina, Harris, Harrison, Modernism in Dispute: Art since the Forties, Chapters 2 and 3, and associated A316 materials. Harrison Wood (eds), Art in Theory, 1900 1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas, Blackwell, 1994 Frascina Harris (eds), Art in Modern Culture: An anthology of critical texts, Phaidon, 1992 OBrian (ed), Clement Greenberg: The Collected Essays and Criticism, Volumes 2 3, University of Chicago Press, 1986, 1993

Thursday, April 16, 2020

The portrayal of Communism in Ayn Rands We the Living Essay Example

The portrayal of Communism in Ayn Rands We the Living Essay ‘We The Living’ is the first published work of Ayn Rand. The novel deals with Communism and its various drawbacks. Having escaped from Communist Russia into the United States during her late teens, the novel thus represents a first-hand view of her experiences in Russia. In this sense, the novel can be considered part autobiographical and part philosophical. Finding a publisher for the novel had been a great challenge, for not many in the industry saw commercial value in the theme. But eventually, the book was published in 1936 by Macmillan, and has since gone on to sell close to 4 million copies. Looking back retrospectively, the novel is seen to contain many elements of Rand’s philosophical system called Objectivism. Since Objectivism espouses the capitalist system (the laissez-faire variety), it can be seen as an antithesis to Communism. (Walker, 1994, p.51) In ‘We The Living’ though, the thrust of Rand’s argument is more on political liberties granted to civil society under Communism. The author accomplishes this by suitably structuring the plot. Set in post-revolutionary Russia (between 1922 and 1925), the story narrates the lives of Kira Argounova (the protagonist), Leo Kovalensky and Andrei. The three characters are so constructed that they represent different socio-economic classes in Russia of the time. Kira comes from a well-to-do bourgeois family whereas Andrei is a revolutionary. Leo, on the other hand is against harsh authoritarian political system. (Branden, 1999, p.61) The story depicts the struggle of three young, talented people to achieve life and happiness in Soviet Russia. It is about the â€Å"manner in which the system destroys all three of them, not in spite of, but because of, their virtues. In order to obtain money to send Leo Kovalensky, the man she loves, to a tuberculosis sanatorium, Kira Argounova becomes the mistress of Andrei Taganov, an idealistic communist. Neither man knows of Kira’s relationship with the other, nor their hate is mutual. Leo is an aristocrat, Andrei, a member of the Soviet secret police. The idea that a woman would be forced to sleep with a man she does not love in order to save the life of the man she does love is not new; that is the situation in Tosca, for instance, and in many other stories.† (Branden, 1999, p.61) We will write a custom essay sample on The portrayal of Communism in Ayn Rands We the Living specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The portrayal of Communism in Ayn Rands We the Living specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The portrayal of Communism in Ayn Rands We the Living specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Kira is a bold and independent girl, who refuses to conform to new mandates of the Soviet State. During the revolution, Kira’s and other bourgeois families were forced into exile, as the Red Army took control of their industry as well as living quarters. Once the dust settled politically and the exiled families returned home, they were despaired to see their private property being converted into mass communal dwellings. Their privately owned industry (textile factory in the case of Kira’s family) has been nationalized. (Walker, 1994, p.51) Seen from the majority of poor Russian peasantry, the outcome of the revolution can be seen as a process of just redistribution of privilege and wealth. But Rand harbors no such sympathies, as she sides with the feelings of the recently dispossessed. The drastic change in fortunes of the bourgeois was presented by the author in empathetic tones. Much of this empathy emerges from the new biting realities under the Soviet regime. Not only was there much political and social chaos, but the Soviet leadership continued to pursue illegitimate means for completing the revolution. The standard of living declines rapidly post-revolution, as cities (including Petrograd) are filled with scenes of disorganization. Under nourished people waiting in long queues to avail of their rations is a common sight. By citing these ugly realities under the Communists, Ayn Rand implicitly bemoans the collective losses incurred by the nation, and especially the members of its bourgeois such as Kira. Discussing the novel with Nathaniel Branden, Rand elaborates on the character of Leo: â€Å"The character of Leo was inspired by a man I was in love with. Nothing ever happened between us, just a few dates, certainly not an affair, and when he stopped calling me, I suffered horribly. In some ways, that was the most painful experience of my life. Much later, I heard that he ended up in a conventional marriage. What I saw in him, what he meant to me, is what I gave to the character of Leo in the novel.† (Branden, 1999, p.61) If the character of Kira and Leo were tragic enough, then that of Andrei Taganov was more so. He is a participant in the revolution and earnestly believed that the radical change is for a good cause. He supports his brothers and sisters and tries to lift their standard of living. Reacting in good faith â€Å"to the deprivations he had suffered as a child, he sees communism as a system for the alleviation of the horrors of Czarist Russia. It is only after he experiences the system in action that he begins to realize the magnitude of his miscalculation.† (Gladstein, 1999, p.35) The originality of the author’s handling of the subject is the way in which she intensifies and magnifies the conflict and makes it more complex. In similar love-triangle plots, the man to whom the woman sells herself is the antagonist whom the woman hates (she knows that she is selling herself). But in the case of Rand’s work though, the character of Andrei is not a villain. Not only does he sincerely love Kira but also believes that the feeling is reciprocal. He also does not know of her love for Leo. Kira, who never despised Andrei, eventually comes to respect him for his virtues. Hence, the plot is unique and the sentiments and actions expressed by the three characters are refreshing too. (Gray, 2010, p.48) Another characteristic feature of the novel is the rather philosophical mindsets of the three characters. Their conversations tend to be heavy and deliberative. But Rand is trying to present a case against the principles of Communism through these lines. For example, â€Å"It’s because†¦you see, if we had souls, which we haven’t, and if our souls met–yours and mine–they’d fight to the death. But after they had torn eachother to pieces, to the very bottom, they’d see that they had the same root.† (We The Living, 1936, p.17) Elsewhere in story it goes â€Å"Well, if I asked people whether they believed in life, they’d never understand what I mean. It’s a bad question. It can mean so much that it really means nothing. So I ask them if they believe in God. And if they say they do–then, I know they don’t believe in life.† (We The Living, 1936, p.18)

Friday, March 13, 2020

Strength of Oedipus Character

Strength of Oedipus Character Introduction Oedipus can be described as a Greek mythical personality in the Greek culture. He is described as a person who came to fulfill a certain prophecy. The prophecy itself involves this third king of Thebes killing his biological father. Later on, he unknowingly marries his biological mother.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Strength of Oedipus Character specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More All of this began with a prophesized oracle after the birth of Oedipus. Therefore, Laius orders his death to avert this prophesies. Unfortunately, while he was left out there in the wilderness to die, a shepherd picks him up and hands him over to a friend. Through the shepherd’s friend, he ends up in Corinth in the Kings house. The King and Queen take him as their own son. They see him as a blessing as they did not have a child. Initially, Oedipus was not aware of the fact that the King and Queen were not his true parent s. Therefore, when one day a drunk mentioned that he was adopted, it troubled him. He became even more troubled on visiting several oracles. Even though the oracles told him the truth, it was more troubling because at that time, he could not make sense of it all. One day, while Oedipus was on his way, he had a dispute with the King of Thebes and unknown to him he killed him after having the argument. He did not even know that he was the king of Thebes when he was killing him. Later on in the town of Thebes, his wits enabled him to answer a riddle and thus saved the people of Thebes. He thus went on to fulfill the prophecy by marrying King Laius’s widow. However, when mother and child came to learn later on their true relation to each other, the mother decided to commit suicide. Oedipus on the other hand decide to blind himself. Strength of character by Oedipus Oedipus has an outstanding central strength. This strength is his curiosity or in other words his truth seeking zeal. This strength can be termed as being part of him. This is first witnessed after he gets a tip of his true Identify. Since he wanted to really know the truth behind it all, he is seen visiting various oracles just to find out the truth. Even though it took quite a while for him to know the truth about his parents, he finally did find out the truth, though a bit late. His truth seeking nature can also be thanked for enabling him to earn the throne of Thebes. This riddle of Sphinx enables him become a ruler and gets a ready wife.Advertising Looking for essay on literature languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The truth seeking nature of Oedipus can almost be described as being hard-coded in him. This is evident as he ignored all warnings to keep away from the truth. An example is a warning by the prophet who was blind, i.e. Tiresias. Terisias points out to him â€Å"You don’t’ want to know the trut h† It is in fact disappointing to him when he finally learns the truth. In fact it is the truth itself that brings Oedipus down and not even his defiance of the gods. The desire to know the truth thus forms the strongest motivating factor in Oedipus. His period of reigning as king comes down to being characterized as a truth seeking mission. It is no wonder that despite the big title that he held, his life had many uncertainties that formed a riddle around him (Simon, 201). It can be put down that in the whole play; the truth is vividly guarded from Oedipus. When it however finally dawns to him, the same truth shocks him. He however embraces this truth with open arms. Therefore one can say that his ability to move from being in pain and confused about the truth is a strength in character. It actually shows just how Oedipus has finally become wise. Throughout the play of Sophocles, Oedipus seems extremely careless on his quest for the truth irrespective of the consequences that are ever so painful. Even though one can say that his quest for the truth was accompanied by lots of despair, this same quest is the one that is attributed towards having changed Oedipus. Due to his many tribulations, Oedipus is forced to come to terms with new responsibilities. These were to affect not only his family and kingdom, but also himself. He is thus seen to have come out stronger. This strength of character also shows that he indeed has become mature. Conclusion Come to think of it, there was only one way through which Oedipus could have attained his strength of character. Therefore, Sophocles just puts out a simple fact through this strength of Oedipus. This simple fact is that every single person is always in a quest to find the truth about something. It is not a must for the quest to set you free. The fact however is that the journey on your quest will shape you Simon, Peter.  The Norton Anthology of World Literature. 1(2). USA:   W. W. Norton Company. 2009.Adve rtising We will write a custom essay sample on Strength of Oedipus Character specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

PATRIOT Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

PATRIOT Act - Essay Example This is because he explains that there is a need of submitting a leader who is not accountable to the people. The Patriot act on the other hand is a law enacted in 2001, aimed at fighting and preventing terrorism within the country. Thomas Hobbes in his book, the Leviathan, sets out to outline the best principles of government that can lead to prosperity, stability and peace. Thomas Hobbes begins his explanation of the role of the government, by explaining how life would be, without the government(Kitanov, 2011). Under this situation, life would be difficult and anarchic, because people would be engaged in carrying out anything that they want. They can kill, steal, or engage in activities aimed at frustrating their neighbors, just because they are strong. This is a condition that Thomas Hobbes refers to as, â€Å"The State of Nature†. For purposes of creating order within the society, there is a need of creating a social contract, and establishing a civil society (Hobbes and Schuhmann, 2003). This civil society should be governed by a sovereign authority who is not answerable to them (Kitanov, 2011). Furthermore, people within the society should cede some of their basic rights, for purposes of acquiring protection from the sovereign authority. Based on these facts, Thomas Hobbes believes that the doctrine of separation of powers does not exists, and this is because the sovereign must control the judiciary, the civil society, the military, and he must have the ecclesiastical powers (Hobbes and Schuhmann, 2003). Hobbes therefore explains that it is only through an absolute monarchy, that the society can be protected from the state of nature. By closely looking at these principles established by Thomas Hobbes, it is possible to explain that Hobbes was advocating for a dictatorship (Kitanov, 2011). This is a form of governance, where its citizens have very limited rights, and they cannot play a role in the governance